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If you're looking for an easy to store, reliable fuel and candle then look no further than Tallow. It's from hard fat that forms around animals internal organs, and it burns very well indeed. You can render it, which means separating the very best parts from the fat, or you can just throw the fat onto a small fire and get a real blaze going, that lasts a long time too.

I slaughtered and butchered a large sheep today, and to get rid of the head, guts, skin and waste I started a small wood fire and threw some fat from around the organs onto it. It soon blazed up hot enough to ignite the fat in the skin and totally cremated all the guts. It's still burning out there now, hours later, as the fats that soaked into the ground burn off.

A very impressive fire that is 99% animal origin, so if you ever find yourself freezing to death near some sheep, cows, pigs or deer you'll know what to do. Plenty enough heat to have cooked the rest of the sheep if need be.
It's a good technique, but the smoke can hurt your eyes if you make it into a candle. Make sure you render it well and have a small wick to keep a small flame. It stops the smoke so doesn't hurt your eyes.
This would be the way to go after an event when no other candle are around,.. but I personally wouldn't go down this road for quiet a while

Tallow candles give a very poor light when matched against `modern` candles, they also give off a load of gunk..... I store loads of clean candles that will do me for a while

Having said all this, I will give this a go the next time I get a deer, [ although there is very little fat on a deer ],.. it is still a good skill to have
what about "reed" candles??
Reed candles, rushlights, are easier to make than regular candles, but not nearly as efficient.

Heat the tallow and soak the rush pith until it is saturated. Any fat or oil will work. It does not have to be high quality tallow or even well rendered or clean.

They burn fast with a lot of smoke and drip ash like a cigarette.

Something that one should know how to make and hope they never have to use.
You know, this gives me an idea! I've got two very fat geriatric sheep here that we've been trying to decide what to do with, well now I'm thinking soak 2 five foot length of Hessian roap in molasses and feed one to each animal, when I see the first six inches of risk appear out their arses I'll knock them on the head. All I have to do then is stick one head first into an oil barrel and light the end of the roap, reckon one will burn till next Christmas! Sorted.Big Grin
The Betty lamp was probably the ultimate fat burner.

They could turn any fat laden chunk of crud into a light source.

The simplest I have seen were made from the bowls of large iron spoons with the handle turned into a loop for holding and the tip bent to hold the twisted cloth wick. They were filled with bacon drippings or lard.

Very sooty and inefficient, but still a light source for the poorest in society who could not afford candles or rush lights.

I have seen the cost of candles worked out for equality of cost between then and now and in many cases the simple tallow candle was worth 10 pounds in todays money. That is some expensive light and not to be wasted.
I have heard a little salt in the oil or fat can stop the smoke a bit ,miners used it in the 1700 ,or so I have been told
The best candles are made from Beeswax and burn with a clear bright light without smoke. The monks in the Monasteries used these candles when working on manuscripts as it gave the best light.
If you render any animal fat would it be suitable for burning?
Beef tallow works well as will deer, moose and elk tallow. Their fat renders down to a hard brittle tallow that holds up well even in moderate heat. A bit of beeswax mixed with the tallow also helps.

Tallow candles also have a secondary use as food storage. In lean times a tallow candle can be added to the soup pot to create a beef stock and add a bit of flavor and nutrition. Just fish out the wick before serving.

Mutton or pork renderings will never set up well enough for candles and must be burned in some device like the "betty lamp". Just imagine trying to make a candle from lard or margarine.